Universal Property Norms
Regardless of whether a particular resource is owned privately or collectively, there are some universal property norms that apply.
- Homesteading, or original appropriation. For all property systems, if nobody else owns a resource, the first significant user has the highest claim to that resource.
- Alienation. We may alienate property by trade, gift, or abandonment.
- Trade. An owner of one good may transfer ownership on the condition that he receive title to a different good in a mutually voluntary transaction.
- Gift. An owner may transfer ownership of a good to a consenting other.
- Abandonment. An owner may relinquish title unilaterally, resulting in an ownerless good open for homesteading.
- Exclusion. Owners have a right to exclude others from property.
- Responsive force. Owners have the right to use force, even violent force, to defend property.
- Appropriate force. One should use no more force than necessary in defending property.