- Scope - Politics deals with only one ethical context: interpersonal relationships. This manifesto deals only with the moral environment of "civilized" society, and not with questions of physical survival or self-improvement.
- Axiomatic Concepts
- agent - (moral agent) a being of full moral status; "person"
- force - (interpersonal force) interference with the freedom of action of another agent.
- Basic Principles
- Non-Aggression Principle - (NAP) A person should not initiate force or commit fraud (indirect force.)
- Sticky Property - The property system generally most conducive to liberty is the neo-Lockean system of proprietary property.
A person who owns something should have disposition over it until he voluntarily relinquishes ownership or clearly abandons it. The dispostion of property is only limited by the corresponding rights of others. (Thus pollution and other harmful "neighborhood effects" are forbidden.)
- liberty - (freedom) self-ownership; the ability to live one's life as one will, without (significant) aggression by other persons.
- right - (moral right) a moral claim to freedom of action
Freedom is so open ended behaviorally, that it is sometimes useful to speak about it in the language of rights. A right focuses on a specific range of actions that a person should have freedom to do.
- authority - 1. aggression 2. a relationship between two or more agents in which one party expects obedience as a right or duty, while the other party voluntarily obeys soley due to having been ordered.
- state - 1. an organization with an effective monopoly on the legitimate/legal use of force in a particular geographic area. 2. an institution of legitimized/legal plunder.
- Major Concerns
- Liberty is the primary political value. Liberty takes precedence over other considerations.
- Equality is rarely a natural result of liberty. On the contrary, liberty leads to inequalities in wealth, talent, intelligence, and many other human qualities. Coercion to enforce equality is of course wrong; it violates the NAP.
- Fraternity very often results when free men interact in peaceful nonaggressive ways. General acceptance of the NAP is conducive to fraternity. Economically, this means free market capitalism - laissez faire, laissez passer.
- Property System - Lockean private property, aka sticky property, proprietary property
- Theory of Value - Marginal utility, aka subjective theory of value (STV.)
Labor TOV - refuted by mudpie making, wine aging examples
Utility TOV - refuted by water/diamond paradox
- Entitlement Theory of Justice - history oriented. If property was justly appropriated from the realm of the unowned (commons), and has been justly transferred, then the resulting owner has just claim.
- Theory of Rights - Rights are claims to freedom of action. The only way rights can be violated is by aggression. If a person adheres to the NAP then he cannot violate rights. Any claim on human-produced goods or services can not be a right, as that would violate the self-ownership of others. Thus claims of 'rights' to housing, food, and education are counterfeit, and amount to a contradictory 'right to enslave'.
- What is "authority"? Authority is aggression. Various state actions violate the NAP, including taxation, conscription, and regulation of the market. Taxation is Robbery! If an action is voluntary, then it is not an act of authority. Voluntary employee/employer contracts are not only permissible, but also an excellent way to provide for a one's needs and to accumulate capital.
- Class struggle - The usefulness of class theory is debatable, since it ignores the diverse interests of people artificially subsumed in each class. However, occasionally class analysis can be useful. The two antagonistic classes are the producers and the parasites. The producer class includes (non-government subsidized) workers, capitalists, and individual entrepreneurs. The parasite class includes government employees, milfare (military) recipients, and businessmen benefiting from government favors.
- Theory of history - Ideas matter, but their power to affect history is constrained by the prevailing mode of production. The cutting edge developed world is moving rapidly from the industrial mode to the information mode of production. This has profound implications for freedom. In general, the computer age favors freedom more than any prior period. Modern technology, in particular computers and cryptography, is shifting the balance of power from the nation-state to the individual and small governance units.
- Prognosis/Predictions - I think that the nation-state will decline significantly in the next 50 years, and numerous libertarian enclaves will spring up in that time-period. Already new "tax-haven" mini-states are springing up yearly, and several cryptographically secured Virtual Autonomous Zones are being beta-tested. Liberty will win out - perhaps in my lifetime.
- Issues and Policies
- Internal Security - Police and arbitration should be provided by voluntary associations such as private firms. Neither service need be strictly territorial. A person should be able to opt out of a Security Maintenance Organization (SMO) without moving - instead his property should change juridictions as he switches SMO's.
- External Security - The military should be provided by voluntary associations such as private firms or local militias. Foreign policy is tolerant to all societies, associations and people who respect the NAP, regardless of their system of property rights. Collectively held or usufruct property of other groups should be respected as private property, as if that group was a private firm.
- Work, Workers and Workplace - Voluntary interactions between consenting adults are permissable. There should be no restrictions on contracts between employees and employers beyond the NAP.
- Accumulation of Capital is a good thing, as capital goods are necessary for much production. As we enter the information age, accumulation of knowledge will likely become relatively more important.
- Decision-Making Processes - In an anarcho-capitalist society, most of the decisions that we consider political will become a matter of personal choice on the market. Instead of voting in an authoritarian system for a lifestyle choice, you choose an SMO package offered in the marketplace. E.g. If you want nudity and pot-smoking allowed but no noise above N decibals and clean air, you choose such a package (or the closest you can find) for yourself, without imposing it on any others. Just as you buy your favorite beer or breakfast cereal without imposing on others, you can "buy" abortion-choice or gun-ownership rights. Freedom through free markets!
- Economic Information and Calculation ("money") - There should be a free market in money and currency. In a free market, anonymous low-inflation currency would have a competitive advantage. This is good for free and productive people.
- Environment - Sticky property allows individuals and firms to preserve the environment and natural habitats. Private ownership of land and animals provides ample incentive to conserve as scarcity makes rare flora and fauna valuable, and hence profitable for a competent conservationist.
- Inheritance - A person should be able to bequeath his property any way he sees fit. Inheritance springs from the rights of the deceased, not the rights of the inheritor.
- Imperialism - Imperialism is a form of aggression. Voluntary interaction, especially free trade, is beneficial to developing countries. Places where people generally adhere to the NAP and where property rights are respected have the greatest advances in wealth creation and standard of living. Third-world countries that prohibit their citizens from engaging in free trade due to fear of imperialism are simply keeping their own citizens impoverished.
- Strategy and Tactics for Change - Don't feed the beast! The best thing to do is to boycott the state as far as possible. This means that you should not give it money. Do not pay taxes. If you live in a nation-state, rip it off whenever possible. Remember what Sun Tzu wrote: "A wise general makes a point of foraging on the enemy." Consider becoming a PT (Perpetual Traveler) or using some other strategy to opt out of statist servitude. Set up voluntary alternatives to services traditionally provided by the state, such as free-market arbitration systems, digital currency systems, secure communications systems, etc. Do not support or condone the state in any way. Do not vote. If you live in a welfare state, prepare yourself and loved ones for the eventual bankrupcy and breakup.
Hogeye Bill revised 1/29/2016